Nanoparticles as radiosensitizers in photon and hadron radiotherapy / Nanocząstki jako radiouczulacze w radioterapii fotonowej i hadronowej (29-36)
Autorzy: Tomasz Kubiak
The article presents the possibility of utilizing nanoparticles as radiosensitizers both in X-ray and hadron therapy. Local reinforcement of the effect of the dose can be obtained by means of gadolinium, platinum, and gold nanoparticles, which are able to intensify the emission of photoelectrons and Auger electrons after the X-ray irradiation or increase the generation of low-energy electrons during hadron therapy. Such electrons induce water radiolysis in the vicinity of nanoparticles and create radicals that damage cancer cells. In addition to the presentation of the mechanisms responsible for radiosensitizing properties of nanoparticles, selected animal, cell culture and simulation experiments are mentioned. Attention is also drawn to the most important problems, which must be solved before clinical application of nanoparticles. The broadly defined biocompatibility is the basic feature required from radiosensitizing agents injected into the patient’s body. The effective delivery of nanoparticles to the target and obtaining the proper concentration and distribution within the tumor volume present a biggest challenge.
Keywords: nanoparticles, radiosensitizers, Auger electrons, radiotherapy, hadron therapy, photon radiotherapy